Omega-3: Fakten - Therapie und Dosierung
Kinder, hyperaktive: keine eindeutige Angaben, ein ev. Einsatz ist konkludent
In Fachzeitschriften wurden folgende Artikel über Omega-3 publiziert. Die Liste dieser Publikationen wurde im April 2003 kompiliert und erhebt keinen Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit. Quelle: MEDLINE.
Die Daten dienen als Referenz für Ärzte und Therapeuten, damit eine ev. präventive Dosis gegen Hyperaktivität von Kindern festgelegt werden könnte.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and their role in early infant development.
Koletzko B: Division Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition Kinderklinik and Kinderpoliklinik, Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Ludwigs-Maximilians-University of Munich; Rodriguez-Palmero M
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 1999 Jul 4:269-84
The lipid fraction of human milk represents the main source of energy for the newborn infant and supplies essential nutrients such as fat-soluble vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The essential fatty acids linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids are precursors of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), such as arachidonic (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 n-3) acids, present in human milk in considerable amounts. LC-PUFA are indispensable structural components of all cellular membranes, and they are incorporated in relatively large amounts during early growth of the brain and the retina. Moreover, some LC-PUFA are precursors of eicosanoids, molecules with potent biological activity that modulates various cellular and tissue processes. The supply of long-chain fatty acids has been associated with functional outcomes of the recipient infants such as visual acuity and development of cognitive functions during the first year of life. Here we discuss the PUFA composition of human milk, factors which determine and modulate milk PUFA content, and possible effects of milk LC-PUFA on infant growth and development.
Health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Horrocks LA, Yeo YK
Pharmacol Res 1999 Sep 40:211-25
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential for the growth and functional development of the brain in infants. DHA is also required for maintenance of normal brain function in adults. The inclusion of plentiful DHA in the diet improves learning ability, whereas deficiencies of DHA are associated with deficits in learning. DHA is taken up by the brain in preference to other fatty acids. The turnover of DHA in the brain is very fast, more so than is generally realized. The visual acuity of healthy, full-term, formula-fed infants is increased when their formula includes DHA. During the last 50 years, many infants have been fed formula diets lacking DHA and other omega-3 fatty acids. DHA deficiencies are associated with foetal alcohol syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cystic fibrosis, phenylketonuria, unipolar depression, aggressive hostility, and adrenoleukodystrophy. Decreases in DHA in the brain are associated with cognitive decline during aging and with onset of sporadic Alzheimer disease. The leading cause of death in western nations is cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong correlation between fish consumption and reduction in sudden death from myocardial infarction. The reduction is approximately 50% with 200 mg day(-1)of DHA from fish. DHA is the active component in fish. Not only does fish oil reduce triglycerides in the blood and decrease thrombosis, but it also prevents cardiac arrhythmias. The association of DHA deficiency with depression is the reason for the robust positive correlation between depression and myocardial infarction. Patients with cardiovascular disease or Type II diabetes are often advised to adopt a low-fat diet with a high proportion of carbohydrate. A study with women shows that this type of diet increases plasma triglycerides and the severity of Type II diabetes and coronary heart disease. DHA is present in fatty fish (salmon, tuna, mackerel) and mother's milk. DHA is present at low levels in meat and eggs, but is not usually present in infant formulas. EPA, another long-chain n-3 fatty acid, is also present in fatty fish. The shorter chain n-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid, is not converted very well to DHA in man. These longchain n-3 fatty acids (also known as omega-3 fatty acids) are now becoming available in some foods, especially infant formula and eggs in Europe and Japan. Fish oil decreases the proliferation of tumour cells, whereas arachidonic acid, a longchain n-6 fatty acid, increases their proliferation. These opposite effects are also seen with inflammation, particularly with rheumatoid arthritis, and with asthma. DHA has a positive effect on diseases such as hypertension, arthritis, atherosclerosis, depression, adult-onset diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, thrombosis, and some cancers.
Chronic n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet-deficiency acts on dopamine metabolism in the rat frontal cortex: a microdialysis study.
Zimmer L: INSERM U316, Laboratoire de Biophysique Médicale et Pharmaceutique, Faculté de Pharmacie, Tours, France; Hembert S, Durand G, Breton P, Guilloteau D, Besnard JC, Chalon S
Neurosci Lett 1998 Jan 240:177-81
The effects of alpha-linolenic acid diet deficiency on rat dopaminergic metabolism were investigated in the frontal cortex of male 2-3 month-old rats using the microdialysis method. Increased basal levels of dopamine metabolites were observed in the frontal cortex of awake deficient rats, without modification of dopamine levels. Moreover, using KCl perfusion which releases newly synthesized dopamine, no difference was observed in anaesthetized deficient rats versus control rats. In addition, a decrease in dopamine release was observed in anaesthetized deficient rats versus control rats after tyramine stimulation, which is known to induce release of dopamine from vesicular stores. A working model is proposed which suggests that a chronic n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) deficiency may lead to modifications in the internalization of dopamine in the storage pool in the frontal cortex.
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Role of essential fatty acids in the function of the developing nervous system.
Uauy R: Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Peirano P, Hoffman D, Mena P, Birch D, Birch E
Lipids 1996 Mar 31 Suppl:S167-76
The basis for n-3 fatty acid essentially in humans includes not only biochemical evidence but functional measures associated with n-3 deficiency in human and nonhuman primates. Functional development of the retina and the occipital cortex are affected by alpha-linolenic acid deficiency and by a lack of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in preterm infant formulas and, as reported more recently, in term diets. Functional effects of n-3 supply on sleep-wake cycles and heart rate rhythms support the need for dietary n-3 fatty acids during early development. Our results indicate that n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids should be considered provisionally essential for infant nutrition. DHA may also be required by individuals with inherited metabolic defects in elongation and desaturation activity, such as patients with peroxisomal disorders and some forms of retinitis pigmentosa.